Ph.D. in Physiology (minor in Radiation Biology), University of California, Davis, 1989
M.S. in Nutrition, Florida State University, Tallahassee, 1981
B.S. in Biology (minor in Chemistry), Florida State University, Tallahassee, 1976
Ph.D. Physiology major emphasized space physiology as well as radiation biology. Also studied for six months in Florence as an undergrad, speak some Italian and French, have had introductory coursework in German and Russian. Took business courses in entrepreneurship, have written formal business plans and started businesses in language translation, energy conservation, specialty book sales, online services.